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The virtual short uses two properties of an ideal op-amp: Although virtual short is an ideal approximation, it gives accurate values when used with heavy negative feedback. As long as the op-amp is operating in the linear region not saturated, positively or negatively , the open loop voltage gain approaches infinity and a virtual short exists between two input terminals.

Because of the virtual short, the inverting input voltage follows the non-inverting input voltage. If the non-inverting input voltage increases or decreases, the inverting input voltage immediately increases or decreases to the same value. Therefore, for a non-inverting amplifier circuit, the input impedance is given by the equation,. Voltage follower is one of the simplest uses of an operational amplifier, where the output voltage is exactly same as the input voltage applied to the circuit. In other words, the gain of a voltage follower circuit is unity.

The output of the op-amp is directly connected to the inverting input terminal, and the input voltage is applied to the non-inverting input terminal. The voltage follower, like a non-inverting amplifier, has very high input impedance and very low output impedance. The circuit diagram of a voltage follower is shown in the figure below. It can be seen that the above configuration is same as the non-inverting amplifier circuit, with an exception that there are no resistors used.

The gain of a non-inverting amplifier is given as,. In the voltage follower, the resistor R1 is equal to zero and R2 is infinite. So the gain of the voltage follower will be equal to 1. A Voltage follower is also commonly known as a Unity Gain Buffer. The voltage follower or unity gain buffer circuit is commonly used to isolate different circuits, i.

• Operational Amplifiers.
• Operational amplifier applications.
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In practice, the output voltage of a voltage follower will not be exactly equal to the input voltage applied and there will be a slight difference. This difference is due to the high internal voltage gain of the op-amp. The open-loop voltage gain of an op-amp is infinite and the closed-loop voltage gain of the voltage follower is unity. This implies that by carefully selecting feedback components, we can accurately control the gain of a non-inverting amplifier.

For the non-inverting amplifier shown in the figure below, calculate. The third terminal is the output which can sink and source current and voltage. The output signal is the amplifiers gain multiplied by the value of the input signal. Open loop gain is the gain of the Op Amp without a positive or negative feedback. An ideal OP Amp should have an infinite open loop gain but typically it range between 20, and 2, It is the ratio of the input voltage to input current. It should be infinite without any leakage of current from the supply to the inputs.

But there will be a few Pico ampere current leakages in most Op Amps. The ideal Op Amp should have zero output impedance without any internal resistance. So that it can supply full current to the load connected to the output. The ideal Op Amp should have an infinite frequency response so that it can amplify any frequency from DC signals to the highest AC frequencies.

But most Op Amps have limited bandwidth. The output of the Op Amp should be zero when the voltage difference between the inputs is zero. But in most Op Amps, the output will not be zero when off but there will be a minute voltage from it. Here we used an operational amplifier of LM Usually a non-inverting input has to be given to a biasing and the inverting input is the real amplifier; connected this to a feedback of 60k resister from output to the input. If we change the gain by 40 then the output is 4V of sine wave.

## Non Inverting Operational Amplifiers

Normally, it is a dual power supply amplifier, it easily configured to a single power supply by the use of a resister network. In this, resister R3 and R4 place a voltage of half of the supply voltage across the non-inverting input which causes the output voltage to also be half of the supply voltage forming a sort of bias voltage resisters R3 and R4 can be any value from 1k to k but in all cases they should be equal.

The use of coupling capacitors for input and output is required for this configuration. The amplified output signal from the Op Amp is the difference between the two input signals. The diagram shown above is the Op Amp simple connection. If both the inputs are supplied with the same voltage, the Op Amp will then takes the difference between the two voltages and it will be 0. The Op Amp will multiply this with its gain 1,, so the output voltage is 0.

• Op Amp Applications.
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When 2 volts is given to one input and 1 volt in the other, then the Op Amp will takes its difference and multiply with the gain. That is 1 volt x 1,, But this gain is very high so to reduce the gain, feedback from the output to the input is usually done through a resistor. The circuit shown above is an inverting amplifier with the Non inverting input connected to the ground.

Two resistors R1 and R2 are connected in the circuit in such a fashion that R1 feeds the input signal while R2 returns the output to the Inverting input. Here when the input signal is positive the output will be negative and vice versa. The voltage change at the output relative to the input depends on the ratio of the resistors R1 and R2. R1 is selected as 1K and R2 as 10K.

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If the input receives 1 volt, then there will be 1 mA current through R1 and the output will have to become — 10 volts in order to supply 1 mA current through R2 and to maintain zero voltage at the Inverting input. The circuit shown above is a Non inverting amplifier. Here the Non inverting input receives the signal while the Inverting input is connected between R2 and R1. When the input signal moves either positive or negative, the output will be in phase and keeps the voltage at the inverting input same as that of Non inverting input.

The circuit above is a voltage follower.

Operational Amplifier: Op-Amp as Differential Amplifier or Op-Amp as subtractor (With Examples)

Here it provides high input impedance, low output impedance. When the input voltage changes, the output and the inverting input will change equally. Operational amplifier compares the voltage applied at one input to the voltage applied at the other input.

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Any difference between the voltages ever if it is small drives the op-amp into saturation. When the voltages supplied to both the inputs are of the same magnitude and the same polarity, then the op-amp output is 0Volts. A comparator produces limited output voltages which can easily interface with digital logic, even though compatibility needs to be verified. Here we have an op-amp used as a comparator with the inverting and non-inverting terminals and connected some potential divider and meter to them and a voltmeter at the output and LED to the output.

When the voltage on the negative input is the below the reference voltage, the output is high and when the negative input goes above the voltage on the positive, the output goes to low. To make the output to zero voltage, the offset nulling method is used.

## Operational Amplifiers Basics, Characteristics, Types and Applications

In most Op-Amps there is a small offset because of their inherent property and results from the mismatches in the input bias arrangement. So a small output voltage is available at the output of some Op-amps even if the input signal is zero. This drawback can be rectified by providing a small offset voltage to the inputs.

This is known as the Input Offset voltage. To remove or Null the Offset, most Op-Amps have two pins to enable the offset nulling. For this, a Pot or Preset with a typical value of K should be connected between the pins 1 and 5 with its Wiper to the ground. Strobing or Phase compensation.